What is a Chemical Peel? A chemical peel is solution applied to the face to remove dead skin cells and stimulate the growth of new cells. The aim is to improve the appearance of the skin – for example, by reducing age spots and evening out skin tone. There are 3 types of peels, called superficial, medium and deep. Superficial and medium peels are usually safe, as long as they're done correctly. These type of peels are not permanent and they need to be repeated. Deeper peels are more risky. They're longer-lasting and do not usually need to be repeated. In the UK, chemical peels cost about £60 to £100 for mild peels. Deeper peels may cost more than £500. The skin that grows back after a chemical peel is smoother and younger looking. Chemical peels are used to treat wrinkles, skin discoloration and scars — typically on the face. Superficial peels are good for treating fine lines and wrinkles, large pores and dark spots, and to help tighten the skin. ... Medium-depth peels can help treat skin that has a significant amount of photodamage, sun spots, mild to moderate acne scars, crepey skin under the eyes or dark circles. A course of 4-6 peels are required for the best results. Contraindications A contra-indication is a factor which prevents a client from being suitable to have a treatment; this is usually a medical condition. Contra-indications can be permanent, temporary or area specific. While having some contra-indications may mean a client isn’t suitable at all for a certain treatment, others may be worked around, for example: A client with a contagious disease should not have any sort of treatment performed on them to avoid cross contamination. This contra-indication will only last for the period of time that the client has the contagious disease. Examples of preventative contraindications • Active acne • Active infection of any type, such as herpes simplex or flat warts. • Any raised lesions • Any recent chemical peel procedure • Chemotherapy or radiation • Eczema or dermatitis • Family history of hypertrophic scarring or keloid formation • Hemophilia • Hormonal therapy that produces thick pigmentation NMD 21-3-2020 • Moles • Oral blood thinner medications • pregnancy • Recent use of topical agents such as glycolic acids, alpha-hydroxy acids and Retin-A • Rosacea • Scleroderma • Skin Cancer • Sunburn • Tattoos • Telangiectasia/erythema may be worsened or brought out by exfoliation • Uncontrolled diabetes • Use of Accutane within the last year • Vascular lesions Different types of chemical peels Superficial peels • skin cells are removed from the top layer of skin (epidermis) • the solution is applied to the skin and left on for a few minutes • your skin may feel tight for a couple of hours afterwards • regular treatment is needed to maintain the effects Medium peels • skin cells are removed from the top and middle layers of skin • the solution is applied and left on for a few minutes • you may feel burning or stinging when it's on your face • your skin may go brown or red for a few days afterwards • it can take up to 6 weeks for your skin to return to normal • treatment is needed every 6 to 12 months to maintain the effects NMD 21-3-2020 Anatomy of the Skin The skin is the largest organ of the body, with a total area of about 20 square feet. The skin protects us from microbes and the elements, helps regulate body temperature, and permits the sensations of touch, heat, and cold. Skin has three layers: • The epidermis, the outermost layer of skin, provides a waterproof barrier and creates our skin tone. • The dermis, beneath the epidermis, contains tough connective tissue, hair follicles, and sweat glands. • The deeper subcutaneous tissue (hypodermis) is made of fat and connective tissue. The skin’s color is created by special cells called melanocytes, which produce the pigment melanin. Melanocytes are located in the epidermis. Procedure Preparation Technique Cleaning Cleaning is VITAL to successful chemical peel. Please ensure that you have the following equipment: Cleanser Toner Moisturiser Chemical peel mixture Chemical peel mixer Latex free gloves Step 1 Thoroughly cleanse the face using your cleanser to ensure the skin is perfectly clean of make up. NMD 21-3-2020 Step 2 Whilst wearing your gloves, mix up the desired ratio of chemical peel mixture with the mixer. This is dependent on the strength you require and the brand of chemical peel. Please ensure you choose a brand that adheres to your insurance. Step 3 Carefully apply the chemical peel in a thin layer on the skin using medical gauze or cotton pads etc. Step 4 Leave on for the desired amount of time. Step 5 Clean off thoroughly with toner. Apply SPF to the skin. Aftercare It is ideal if the client does not wear makeup for at least 24 hours. This will allow their skin to rest. Because the outermost layer of the skin has been removed, it is important to avoid the sun for at least 48 hours, and wear a sunscreen of at least 30 SPF. Avoid using retinols or having facials too soon after, both of which can irritate skin post-peel.